Status Of Iaea Safeguards Agreements
By : Nicole -
The five nuclear-weapon States of nuclear non-proliferation of nuclear weapons have entered into safeguard agreements for some or all of their peaceful nuclear activities. As part of these voluntary supply agreements, agencies are notified by the State concerned to the IAEA and offered for the application of safeguard measures. The IAEA applies safeguards under voluntary agreements to supply nuclear materials at selected facilities. United States (U.S.) – International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards Agreement is a contract between the U.S. government and the IAEA for the application of international security measures for nuclear materials at U.S. facilities. Although the United States did not oblige under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), it signed voluntarily in 1977 (1977) and implemented a safeguard agreement allowing the IAEA to do so…… Protective measures … all interconnectable sources or materials in all facilities within the United States, with the exception of entities related to activities that have a direct impact on national security for the United States… The United States is implementing the IAEA Safeguarding Agreement to show other countries that the implementation of IAEA protection measures will not economically disadvantage its nuclear facilities compared to U.S. nuclear facilities. At the request of the United States, the Agency exempts nuclear materials that would otherwise be protected under this agreement, as follows: until March 1971, the Safeguarding Committee completed the development of detailed provisions for each safeguard agreement. The Board of Directors approved the document and shortly thereafter, Austria and Finland concluded safeguard agreements with the IAEA, which became models of these future agreements known as global protection agreements.
They have also been used with significant changes in the development of protection agreements, known as voluntary supply agreements, with the United States and the United Kingdom, and then with Russia, France and China. (a) safeguards for nuclear materials for which safeguards are taken under this agreement are lifted under the conditions set out in Article 11. However, if the conditions set out in this article are not met, the United States considers that the recovery of safe nuclear materials from residues is not feasible or desirable at this time, the United States and the Agency are consulting the appropriate safeguards to be applied. (b) safeguards for nuclear materials, for which safeguards are taken under this agreement, are lifted under the conditions of Article 13, provided that the United States and the Agency agree that such nuclear materials are virtually impossible to recover. When the Committee finds, when reviewing the relevant information notified to it by the Director General, that this agreement has not been complied with, the committee may ask the United States to immediately remedy this breach. If, within a reasonable period of time, it should not be fully addressed, the Committee may prepare the reports under Article C, paragraph C, the statutes and, if necessary, take the other measures set out in this paragraph. As part of these measures, the Committee takes into account the level of security guaranteed by the safeguards applied and gives the United States any appropriate opportunity to provide the Committee with the necessary assurance.